Throughout the centuries, scholars and penal reformers have widely documented reform efforts and the shift in punishment philosophies.
Skellig Michael, also known as Great Skellig, is a steep rocky island in the Atlantic Ocean about Clovis I — Clovis or Chlodowech was the first King of the Franks to unite all the Frankish tribes under one ruler, changing the leadership from a group of royal chieftains, to rule by kings, ensuring that the kingship was held by his heirs.
Charles Martel, also known as Charles the Hammer, was a Frankish military and political leader, who served as Mayor of the Palace under the Merovingian kings and ruled de facto during an interregnum at the end of his life, using the title Duke and Prince of the Franks. Norse colonization of the Americas — The Norse colonization of the Americas began as early as the 10th century, when Norse sailors explored and settled areas of the North Atlantic, including the northeastern fringes of North America.
High Middle Ages Holy Roman Empire in Germany and central Europe, established in survives until Feudalism — Feudalism was a set of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries, which, broadly defined, was a system for structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour.
Crusades — The Crusades were a series of religious expeditionary wars blessed by the Pope and the Catholic Church, with the stated goal of restoring Christian access to the holy places in and near Jerusalem.
Some of these institutions continued into modern times. Scholasticism — Scholasticism is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics of medieval universities in Europe from about —, and a program of employing that method in articulating and defending orthodoxy in an increasingly pluralistic context.
Magna Carta — Magna Carta, also called Magna Carta Libertatum, is an English charter, originally issued in the year and reissued later in the 13th century in modified versions.
University — A university is an institution of higher education and research which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects and provides both undergraduate education and postgraduate education. Hundred Years War — An extremely protracted conflict between England and France lasting from to Middle class — The middle class is a class of people in the middle of a societal hierarchy, also known as bourgeoisie, or burghers.
Renaissance and reformation[ edit ] Main article: Renaissance Italian Renaissance — The Italian Renaissance was the earliest manifestation of the general European Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement that began in Italy around the end of the 13th century and lasted until the 16th century, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe.
Romanesque architecture — Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of Medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches. Johannes Gutenberg — Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg was a German blacksmith, goldsmith, printer, and publisher who introduced printing to Europe.
Vasco da Gama — Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira, was a Portuguese explorer, one of the most successful in the Age of Discovery and the commander of the first ships to sail directly from Europe to India.
Nicolaus Copernicus — Nicolaus Copernicus was a Renaissance astronomer and the first person to formulate a comprehensive heliocentric cosmology which displaced the Earth from the center of the universe. Protestant Reformation Protestantism — a denomination of Christianity formed by Martin Lutherwhich split from Catholicism in the early 16th Century, causing much conflict and strife.
Reformation — a term referring to the process by which Protestantism emerged and gained supporters. Counter Reformation — the backlash to the Reformation by Catholicismresulting in a great deal of fighting, most notably the 30 Years War. Rise of Western empires: Mercantilism — Mercantilism is the economic doctrine in which government control of foreign trade is of paramount importance for ensuring the prosperity and military security of the state.
Age of Enlightenment — The period during which superstitions were rejected in favor of science and logictypically thought of as the dawn of modern science. French Revolution — The French Revolution, was a period of radical social and political upheaval in France that had a major impact on France and indeed all of Europe.
French invasion of Russia — A disastrous military campaign in which Napoleonwith his armies, attempted to seize Russia. Instead of fighting conventionally, Russian forces merely retreated, taking all of the food with them, resulting in Napoleon reaching Moscow but his armies dying of hunger.
Constitutional monarchy — Constitutional monarchy is a form of government in which a monarch acts as head of state within the parameters of a constitution, whether it be a written, uncodified, or blended constitution. Abolitionism — Abolitionism is a movement to end slavery.
Canada — Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Confederate States of America — The Confederate States of America was a government set up from to by eleven Southern slave states that had declared their secession from the United States.
Fall of the Spanish Empire: North German Confederation — The North German Confederation was a federation of 22 independent states of northern Germany, with nearly 30 million inhabitants.
Periodic table — The periodic table is a tabular display of the chemical elements, organized on the basis of their properties.
Neoclassicism — Neoclassicism is the name given to Western Cultural movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of Ancient Greece or Ancient Rome.
Impressionism — Impressionism was a 19th-century art movement that originated with a group of Paris-based artists whose independent art exhibition exhibitions brought them to prominence during the s and s in spite of harsh opposition from the art community in France.
Russo-Turkish War — — A short lived conflict over several territories in the Caucasusmost notably Armeniain reaction to a Turkish massacre of Armenians. Antarctica — The last continent to be discovered, and the outlet for much Imperial ambition, until it was realised that the remoteness of the continent made a settlement impossible.
Great powers and the First World War: After several years of this, a backlash reversed many of these reforms. Jim Crow laws enforcing racial segregation in the U.The Facts of Economic Growth C.I.
Jones Stanford GSB, Stanford, CA, United States NBER, Cambridge, MA, United States Contents 1. Growth at the Frontier 5 Modern Economic Growth 5 Starting at around $3, in , per capita GDP rose to more than $50, by , a nearly fold increase.
Read chapter 8 Historical Background to Current Immigration Issues: The New Americans (NRC ) presents an analysis of the economic gains and losses fro.
Century Developed Countries: A Descriptive and Econometric Analysis Paul Bairoch and Gary Goertz were dependent on geography and the historical situation and when the general level of urbanisation was low, through the URBANISATION IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY DEVELOPED COUNTRIES countries (i.e.
Australia, Canada, New Zealand and. Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to , , and Statistical Abstract (annually) (U.S.
Government Printing Office). Jacob Viner Studies in the Theory of International Trade. United States: – Reconstruction – The period following the Civil War during which African Americans were granted status equal to Caucasians.
After several years of this, a backlash reversed many of these reforms. In this online exhibition, students will learn how West Point graduates influenced the development of the United States both domestically and abroad between the Civil War and the beginning of the Twentieth Century.
After the Civil War, the United States Army was kept small in size while its main responsibilities were fighting Indians in the West, maintaining order in labor.