State organisation of the Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire was an absolute monarchy during much of its existence. By the second half of the fifteenth century, the sultan sat at the apex of a hierarchical system and acted in political, military, judicial, social, and religious capacities under a variety of titles. He was the supreme military commander and had the official title to all land. Political decisions had to take into account the opinions and attitudes of important members of the dynasty, the bureaucratic and military establishments, as well as religious leaders.
Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt attacks Missolonghi His reign also marked the first breakaway from the Ottoman Empire, with Greece gaining its independence following a revolution that started in This event, together with the occupation of the Ottoman province of Algeria by France inmarked the beginning of the gradual break-up of the Ottoman Empire.
Non-Turkish ethnic groups living in the empire's territories, especially in Europe, started their own independence movements. The Auspicious Incident[ edit ] Main article: He accomplished this with careful calculation using his recently reformed wing of the military intended to replace the Janissaries.
When the Janissaries mounted a demonstration against Mahmud II's proposed military reforms, he had their barracks fired upon effectively crushing the formerly elite Ottoman troops and burned the Belgrade forest outside Istanbul to incinerate any remnants.
He ordered the execution of the renowned Ali Pasha of Tepelena. Injust prior to his death, he began preparations for the Tanzimat reform era which included introducing a Council of Ministers or the Meclis-i Vukela. He was concerned also for aspects of tradition. He made great efforts to revive the sport of archery.
He ordered archery master Mustafa Kani to write a book about the history, construction, and use of Turkish bowsfrom which comes most of what is now known of Turkish archery. His funeral was attended by crowds of people who came to bid the Sultan farewell.
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. July Legal reforms[ edit ] Among his reforms are the edicts or firmansby which he closed the Court of Confiscations, and took away much of the power of the Pashas.
Previous to the first of the Firmans the property of all persons banished or condemned to death was forfeited to the crown; and a sordid motive for acts of cruelty was thus kept in perpetual operation, besides the encouragement of a host of vile delators.
About the same time that Mahmud II ordained these changes, he personally set an example of reform by regularly attending the Divan, or state council, instead of secluding himself from the labors of state.
The practice of the Sultan avoiding the Divan had been introduced as long ago as the reign of Suleiman Iand was considered as one of the causes of the decline of the Empire by a Turkish historian nearly two centuries before Mahmud II's time. However, he did not venture to apply this vast mass of property to the general purposes of the government.
His modernizations included the relaxation of much of the restrictions on alcoholic beverages in the Empire, and the sultan himself was known to drink socially with his ministers. A Firman of February 22, abolished the vexatious charges which public functionaries, when traversing the provinces, had long been accustomed to take from the inhabitants.
By the same edict all collection of money, except for the two regular half-yearly periods, was denounced as abuses. Therefore, those acts of oppression are at once contrary to the will of God, and to my imperial orders. Many other financial improvements were effected. By another important series of measures, the administrative government was simplified and strengthened, and a large number of sinecure offices were abolished.
Sultan Mahmud II provided a valuable personal example of good sense, and economy, organising the imperial household, suppressing all titles without duties, and all salaried officials without functions. Ottoman military reform efforts Mahmudiyebuilt by the Imperial Arsenal on the Golden Horn in Constantinoplewas for many years the largest warship in the world.
She participated in numerous important naval battles, including the Siege of Sevastopol — during the Crimean War. These had been instituted to furnish the old effective military force, but had long ceased to serve this purpose.
By attaching them to the public domains, Mahmud II materially strengthened the resources of the state, and put an end to a host of corruptions. One of the most resolute acts of his ruling was the suppression of the Dere Beys, the hereditary local chiefs with power to nominate their successors in default of male heirswhich, in one of the worst abuses of the Ottoman feudal system, had made themselves petty princes in almost every province of the empire.
The reduction of these insubordinate feudatories was not effected at once, or without severe struggles and frequent insurrections. Mahmud II steadily persevered in this great measure and ultimately the island of Cyprus became the only part of empire in which power not emanating from the Sultan was allowed to be retained by Dere Beys.
One of his most notable achievement was the abolition through use of military force, execution and exile, and banning of the Bektashi order of the Janissary Corps, event known as The Auspicious Incidentin and the establishment of a modern Ottoman Army, named the Asakir-i Mansure-i Muhammediye meaning 'Victorious Soldiers of Muhammad' in Ottoman Turkish.
Following the loss of Greece after the Battle of Navarino against the combined British-French-Russian flotilla inMahmud II gave top priority to rebuilding a strong Ottoman naval force.
The first steam ships of the Ottoman Navy were acquired in Mahmud II before his clothing reform in Mahmud II after his clothing reform in During his reign Mahmud II also made sweeping reforms of the bureaucracy in order to reestablish royal authority and increase the administrative efficiency of his government.
This was accomplished by abolishing old offices, introducing new lines of responsibility, and raised salaries in an attempt to end bribery. In he founded two institutions aimed towards training government officials.
This was the first newspaper to be published in the Ottoman-Turkish language and was required reading for all civil servants. He began by officially adopting the fez for the military after the Janissary eradication inwhich signified a break from the old style of military dress."The Ottoman Empire's Place in World History (Social, Economic and Political Studies of the Middle East)".
The Ottoman State and Its Place in World History. Volume Overview of Ottomans, The Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Institutions, Selim I and Süleyman the Magnificent, Köprülü Era, External Threats and Internal Transformations, The Young Turks, World War I, Turkey, TransAnatolie Tour.
Middle East History II: Aksakal. Midterm exam. STUDY. PLAY. Abdulhamid II. He was a sultan of the Ottoman Empire who used religion and the Hejaz railway to the centralize the empire.
He was deposed by the Young Turks in Abdulmecid I. In Sultan Mehmed II conquered Constantinople (Istanbul) and made it the third and last Ottoman capital city.
The tide of conquest continued to flow throughout the 16th century. Under Sultan Selim I (the Grim) first the Safavids of Iran were defeated (Chaldiran, ) and eastern Anatolia added to the empire and then in the.
Five years later, May 17, , Herzl did meet with Sultan Abdulhamid II, but the Sultan refused Theodor Herzl's offer to consolidate the Ottoman debt in exchange for a . It has become a center for knowledge about the Ottoman Empire, and a calming place for rest for people who would like to imagine what life must have been like in this magnificent palace of yesteryear.