Many a time people perceive things based on either what they have seen, experienced, heard, read, learned or inferred after some experimentation. These perceptions are then categorized in the mind as data, information, knowledge, understanding or wisdom. Unlike wisdominformation and knowledge perceptions are as a result of what the brain has recorded in the past.
Data, Information, Knowledge, and Wisdom Data, Information, Knowledge, and Wisdom by Gene BellingerDurval CastroAnthony Mills There is probably no segment of activity in the world attracting as much attention at present as that of knowledge management. Yet as I entered this arena of activity I quickly found there didn't seem to be a wealth of sources that seemed to make sense in terms of defining what knowledge actually was, and how was it differentiated from data, information, and wisdom.
What follows is the current level of understanding I have been able to piece together regarding data, information, knowledge, and wisdom. I figured to understand one of them I had to understand all of them.
Knowledge is supported by experience and other forms of education and learning to comprehend the relationship of data to information and both their reason and meaning. The primary difference between information and knowledge is information is nothing but the refined form of data, which is helpful to understand the meaning. On the other hand, knowledge is the relevant and objective information that helps in drawing conclusions. Knowledge is supported by experience and other forms of education and learning to comprehend the relationship of data to information and both their reason and meaning.
According to Russell Ackoff, a systems theorist and professor of organizational change, the content of the human mind can be classified into five categories: Ackoff indicates that the first four categories relate to the past; they deal with what has been or what is known.
Only the fifth category, wisdom, deals with the future because it incorporates vision and design. With wisdom, people can create the future rather than just grasp the present and past. But achieving wisdom isn't easy; people must move successively through the other categories.
A further elaboration of Ackoff's definitions follows: It simply exists and has no significance beyond its existence in and of itself. It can exist in any form, usable or not. It does not have meaning of itself.
In computer parlance, a spreadsheet generally starts out by holding data. This "meaning" can be useful, but does not have to be. In computer parlance, a relational database makes information from the data stored within it. Knowledge is a deterministic process. When someone "memorizes" information as less-aspiring test-bound students often dothen they have amassed knowledge.
This knowledge has useful meaning to them, but it does not provide for, in and of itself, an integration such as would infer further knowledge. For example, elementary school children memorize, or amass knowledge of, the "times table".
But when asked what is " x ", they can not respond correctly because that entry is not in their times table. To correctly answer such a question requires a true cognitive and analytical ability that is only encompassed in the next level In computer parlance, most of the applications we use modeling, simulation, etc.
It is cognitive and analytical. It is the process by which I can take knowledge and synthesize new knowledge from the previously held knowledge. The difference between understanding and knowledge is the difference between "learning" and "memorizing". People who have understanding can undertake useful actions because they can synthesize new knowledge, or in some cases, at least new information, from what is previously known and understood.
That is, understanding can build upon currently held information, knowledge and understanding itself.
In computer parlance, AI systems possess understanding in the sense that they are able to synthesize new knowledge from previously stored information and knowledge.
It calls upon all the previous levels of consciousness, and specifically upon special types of human programming moral, ethical codes, etc. It beckons to give us understanding about which there has previously been no understanding, and in doing so, goes far beyond understanding itself.
It is the essence of philosophical probing. Unlike the previous four levels, it asks questions to which there is no easily-achievable answer, and in some cases, to which there can be no humanly-known answer period. Wisdom is therefore, the process by which we also discern, or judge, between right and wrong, good and bad.
I personally believe that computers do not have, and will never have the ability to posses wisdom. Wisdom is a uniquely human state, or as I see it, wisdom requires one to have a soul, for it resides as much in the heart as in the mind. And a soul is something machines will never possess or perhaps I should reword that to say, a soul is something that, in general, will never possess a machine.
Personally I contend that the sequence is a bit less involved than described by Ackoff. The following diagram represents the transitions from data, to information, to knowledge, and finally to wisdom, and it is understanding that support the transition from each stage to the next.The primary difference between information and knowledge is information is nothing but the refined form of data, which is helpful to understand the meaning.
On the other hand, knowledge is the relevant and objective information that helps in drawing conclusions. A simplistic way of connecting the above concepts is to consider information as the understanding of relations in the data and knowledge as the understanding of patterns in the information.
First Things First: Data vs Information. There’s a really simple way to understand the difference between data and information.
When we understand the primary function of the item we are looking at, we quickly see the distinction between the two. Jan 01, · I’ve learned in the attheheels.com’t just quote something–at least quote and digest and maybe that’ll show the difference between knowledge and information (getting back to the topic at hand).
Questions themselves don’t answer things they tend to obfuscate. The difference between information and knowledge. Information is contained in knowledge.. The word knowledge means two things: having the information and understanding how items of information hang together.
That Paris is the capital of France does not require understanding. It is merely information. Data, Information, and Knowledge – Interwoven To explore the concepts of Data, Information, and Knowledge independently is to attempt building a large and complex puzzle with only a few pieces from the box.
While the relationships between these concepts can be as elusive as finding their universal definitions, it is within these relationships that data, information, and knowledge .