I have listed a selection of aids which are specifically designed to help students children and adults with dyspraxia, and which I think would be most useful. It should be said, though that these pens are very comfortable to use and are not just for children. These pens are refillable.
AAC Devices As Treatment For Dysarthria Whether AAC treatment is recommended for someone with dysarthria depends upon the severity of their speech impairment and the projected course of their disease or condition. An SLP determines individual need through a motor speech assessment consisting of five parts including a case history, the examination of the oral mechanism during nonspeech activities, assessment of perceptual speech characteristics, assessment of intelligibility, and acoustic physiologic analyses Duffy, Typically, an SLP uses a severity-based classification system as a guide for selecting an appropriate treatment for dysarthria.
Staging is a term common in medical practice that creates classifications for the purpose of identifying appropriate and effective interventions for different severity levels of a disorder. Table 2 summarizes five stages of severity for the dysarthrias.
Based on several factors, including the natural course of the disease or condition and the severity of the speech disorder, clinicians can determine dyspraxia handwriting aids and what type of AAC treatment is necessary.
Yorkston et al, As noted below, Stages I, II, and III require techniques that focus on strengthening the speech musculature and improving articulation, voicing, and overall intelligibility.
In addition, AAC devices may be recommended for use in social and community contexts, for telephone use, and with unfamiliar partners.
At Stage V, when speech is no longer functional, most individuals with dysarthria require the use of electronic AAC devices and other accessories to enable them to communicate effectively. Stages Of Severity For Dysarthria Description Stage I No detectable speech disorder Educate the patient, family, and caregivers regarding the course of the disease and future communication needs and options.
Stage II Obvious speech disorder with intelligible speech Reduce the impairment through strengthening muscles related to speech production and range of motion exercises. In addition, introduce to the speaker and listeners to strategies that improve intelligibility slower rate of speech, first-letter cueing.
Stage V Loss of useful speech Provide a multi-purpose AAC device and accessories as well as non-electronic back up strategies. After determining the need for AAC treatment, the SLP, often in collaboration with other allied health professionals, continues the assessment process in order to identify the specific type of AAC treatment required and type of device and accessories needed.
Individuals with severe dysarthria often employ a variety of AAC techniques to improve or restore their ability to communicate. Treatment may include non-electronic communication aids e.
The purpose of AAC treatment is to establish effective independent communicative capabilities so that the person with severe dysarthria can meet the communication needs that arise in the course of daily activities Beukelman et al. The characteristics of common conditions or diseases that cause dysarthria and the treatment effectiveness of AAC devices are described below.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ALS is a rapidly progressive neurological disease involving the motor neurons of the cortex, brainstem, and spinal cord. The classical picture of ALS is one of motor loss with preserved sensation and cognition.
A number of studies demonstrate that AAC devices are an effective treatment for the communication problems experienced by individuals with ALS. In a cross sectional study of individuals with ALS seen in an outpatient clinic, Yorkston and her colleagues identified six groups of people with ALS based on speech, upper extremity and lower extremity functioning.
Each group presented with a different set of symptoms affecting communication speech and writinggiven the course of the disease process. This group required assistive technology for written communication. This group often used handwriting for face-to-face communication but required AAC devices when interacting in groups and to talk on the telephone.
In consideration of the progressive nature of the disease process, AAC devices with a range of access options direct selection, scanning were recommended for individuals in this group.
They used handwriting, direct selection AAC devices low and high techtypewriters, and computers. Equipment was mounted on wheelchairs and beds, or placed on tables. These individuals required lightweight, portable AAC devices with features that included alternate access modes.
This group often required AAC devices that enabled them to use switches and scanning techniques for access. Over the course of the disease process, it is typical for individuals to move from Group 1 to other groups. Parkinson disease is a relatively common slowly progressive disease of the central nervous system, especially the basal ganglia.
Although speech disorders typically do not occur early in the disease, as the disorder progresses, about two thirds of individuals with Parkinson disease have reported changes in speech, rate, and voice.
Delayed Auditory Feedback stategies are sometimes effective in slowing speaking rates and improving intelligibility while preserving the naturalness of speech. Only a small minority of these individuals require speech output AAC devices.
For example, Jean Dominique Bauby, who had been the editor of Elle magazine in France, and who developed locked in syndrome following a stroke, wrote a best selling memoir, The Diving Bell and the Butterfly that described his condition.
The title of this book is itself a metaphor for locked-in-syndrome: You read the alphabet. The maneuver is repeated for the letters that follow.
As more technology is becoming available, personal testimonies of people with locked-in-syndrome utilizing AAC devices are appearing in the mainstream literature. Thirty years later, Ms. Tavalaro is publishing her poems and communicating with family and friends from her residence on Roosevelt Island, New York.
Another example is an engineer who experienced a brainstem stroke in his mid 50s. Even after he had regained some natural speech he commented about his AAC device:National Curriculum levels explained for parents, including sub-levels and what levels children are expected to achieve at the end of each school year.
The Context of Special Needs in Ireland 3 Classification according to the area of development predominately affected by the special need Physical health and development. SECTION 3: CLINICAL ASPECTS OF AAC DEVICES. OVERVIEW Subpart I of this section discusses the characteristics and treatment of severe dysarthria, apraxia, and aphasia, the medical conditions most closely associated with the need for AAC interventions.
Handwriting with too much pressure. The reasons why and 16 ideas to help reduce pencil pressure How to choose the right laptop for your Dyspraxic and or Dyslexic Child to use in school. • Allow extra time for assignments. Processing speed is much slower for children with dyspraxia.
• When possible, if the student is required to copy from a board at the front of the room, allow the student to copy from a written handout instead. • Organization is one of the biggest challenges for these children. Dysgraphia and dyspraxia are very different, but they often have overlapping symptoms—like messy handwriting.
Learn more about the difference between dysgraphia and dyspraxia.
Apraxia Balance Cognition Fall Risk Assessment and Prevention Handwriting Home Safety and Modification Therapeutic Exercise Visual Perception. Handwriting with too much pressure. The reasons why and 16 ideas to help reduce pencil pressure How to choose the right laptop for your Dyspraxic and or Dyslexic Child to use in school. Dysgraphia and dyspraxia are very different, but they often have overlapping symptoms—like messy handwriting. Learn more about the difference between dysgraphia and dyspraxia. ADHD: ADHD can make it difficult for your child to keep still, concentrate, consider consequences and control impulses.
ADHD: ADHD can make it difficult for your child to keep still, concentrate, consider consequences and control impulses.