Before, we only used to attend physical classes in schools, colleges, and universities. In the present, schooling may be done in many ways like having a home schooling, and the modern, online class.
Two primary understandings of "andragogy" exist: The science of understanding theory and supporting practice lifelong education of adults. In the tradition of Malcolm Knowlesa specific theoretical and practical approach. It is based on a humanistic conception of self-directed and autonomous learners as well as teachers as facilitators of learning.
Interpreted broadly throughout academic literature, the term also invites other definitions such as " adult education practice", "desirable values", "specific teaching methods", "reflections", and "academic discipline", with many authors claiming it to be better than traditional adult education.
The term has been used by some to allow discussion of contrast between self-directed and self-taught education. Andragogy was developed into a theory of adult education by Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy. Knowles asserted that andragogy Greek: Knowles collected ideas about a theory of adult education from the end of World War II until he was introduced to the term "andragogy".
InKnowles met Dusan Savicevic in Boston. Savicevic was the one who shared the term andragogy with Knowles and explained how it was used in the European context. InKnowles made use of the term "androgogy" to explain his theory of adult education. Then after consulting with Merriam-Websterhe corrected the spelling of the term to "andragogy" and continued to make use of the term to explain his multiple ideas about adult learning.
Knowles' theory can be stated with six assumptions related to the motivation of adult learning: Adults need to know the reason for learning something.
Experience including error provides the basis for learning activities. Adults need to be responsible for their decisions on education; involvement in the planning and evaluation of their instruction.
Adult learning is problem -centered rather than content-oriented. Adults respond better to internal versus external motivators.
In most European countries, the Knowles discussion played at best, a marginal role. Examples of this use of andragogy are the Yugoslavian scholarly journal for adult education, named Andragogija inand the Yugoslavian Society for Andragogy; at Palacky University in Olomouc Czech republic the Katedra sociologie a andragogiky Sociology and Andragogy Department was established in On this formal level "above practice" and specific approaches, the term "andragogy" could be used relating to all types of theories, for reflection, analysis, training, in person-oriented programs, or human resource development.For pedagogical approach readiness to learn is shaped by age and curriculum, while for andragogical one it develops from tasks encountered in life.
Moreover, orientation to learning is subject-centered within pedagogical approach and is generally problem-centered within andragogical approach.
Today, pedagogy refers to the theories and methods used in teaching. However, in the past, pedagogy referred specifically to the methods used to educate children.
Andragogy was coined to focus on the practices used to teach adults. Definition The methods and practices used in teaching adults. The. Differences between Pedagogical and Andragogical Methods of Teaching and the Preference of Andragogy for the Teaching of Adults Ya’u Haruna Usman solving approach to adult education (Davenport, ).Knowles () was exposed to the term andragogy from.
In order to further distinguish between the pedagogical and andragogical approaches to design and operate adult educational programs, Knowles () compared his andragogical model of human resource development with that used by most traditional educators, which he called a pedagogical . Despite the differences between andragogical and pedagogical orientations to teaching, such as the roles of the teacher and the learners and the learning climate and environment, many adult education institutions require a diploma or certificate in pedagogy.
In presenting the humanagogy approach, Knudson reminded educators that both the pedagogical and andragogical approaches have something to offer.
"Like the Chinese symbol of yin and yang, they are at the same time opposites and complements and equally necessary" (p. 8).