Saul McLeodpublished People often get confused between the terms sex and gender.
Sex differences in medicine Sex differences in medicine include sex-specific diseases, which are diseases that occur only in people of one sex ; and sex-related diseases, which are diseases that are more usual to one sex, or which manifest differently in each sex.
For example, certain autoimmune diseases may occur predominantly in one sex, for unknown reasons. Gender-based medicine, also called "gender medicine", is the field of medicine that studies the biological and physiological differences between the human sexes and how that affects differences in disease.
Traditionally, medical research has mostly been conducted using the male body as the basis for clinical studies.
|Chromosomes||Gender and Biology March 15th, by Pelle Billing Whenever gender roles and gender issues are discussed, one of the most controversial questions is whether biological hardwiring affects the behavior of men and women. Are gender specific neurohormonal factors significant enough to affect the everyday behavior and choices of each sex?|
|Human instincts in modern society||PDF Abstract Evolutionary researchers have identified age, operational sex ratio and high variance in male resources as factors that intensify female competition. These are discussed in relation to escalated intrasexual competition for men and their resources between young women in deprived neighbourhoods.|
|The evolutionary psychology of women's aggression||The basic material reality of what people do to survive ultimately determines the nature of any social structure.|
More recently, medical research has started to understand the importance of taking the sex into account as the symptoms and responses to medical treatment may be very different between sexes. Sex-related illnesses have various causes: Different levels of prevention, reporting, diagnosis or treatment in each gender.
Research has found that female doctors may be providing better care than male doctors in the U. Sex differences in human physiology Sex differences in human physiology are distinctions of physiological characteristics associated with either male or female humans.
These can be of several types, including direct and indirect. Direct being the direct result of differences prescribed by the Y-chromosome, and indirect being a characteristic influenced indirectly e. Sexual dimorphism is a term for the phenotypic difference between males and females of the same species.
Direct sex differences follow a bimodal distribution. Through the process of meiosis and fertilization with rare exceptionseach individual is created with zero or one Y-chromosome. The complementary result for the X-chromosome follows, either a double or a single X. Therefore, direct sex differences are usually binary in expression although the deviations in complex biological processes produce a menagerie of exceptions.
These include, most conspicuously, male vs female gonads. Indirect sex differences are general differences as quantified by empirical data and statistical analysis. Most differing characteristics will conform to a bell-curve i.
Often only the mean or mean difference between sexes is given. This may or may not preclude overlap in distributions. For example, most males are taller and stronger than females but an individual female could be taller and stronger than an individual male. The extents of these differences vary across societies.
There are also differences in the structure of specific areas of the brain. Sex differences in human psychology Research on biological sex differences in human psychology investigates cognitive and behavioral differences between men and women.
This research employs experimental tests of cognitionwhich take a variety of forms. Tests focus on possible differences in areas such as IQspatial reasoning, aggressionemotionand brain structure and function.Women and men have been surveyed by Gallup each year concerning workplace topics, and when questioned about preferences of a female boss or a male boss, women chose a preference for a male boss 39% of the time, compared to 26% of men displaying preference for a male boss.
Whenever gender roles and gender issues are discussed, one of the most controversial questions is whether biological hardwiring affects the behavior of men and women. Gender and Biology. The Role of Biology. Biology determines sex, while social norms determine gender.
Learning Objectives. Define and differentiate between sex and gender.
Key Takeaways When men and women have similar careers and lifestyles, the life-expectancy gap decreases. These are critical questions, for they ask whether the differences between boys and girls and women and men stem more from biology or from society.
As Chapter 2 “Eye on Society: Doing Sociological Research” pointed out, biological explanations for human behavior implicitly support the status quo. It will not have gone unnoticed that men are more violent than women. Men perpetrate about 90 percent of the world's homicides and start all of the wars.
to be a "admirable gender role". Women. The Role of Biology in Aggression Aggression is controlled in large part by the area in the older part of the brain known as the amygdala (Figure , “Key Brain Structures Involved in .