The models developed predicted the national specialization-by-industry observed in the industrial world movies in Hollywood, watches in Switzerlandetc. The model also showed how path-dependent industrial concentrations can sometimes lead to monopolistic competition or even situations of oligopoly.
MPT shows that an investor can construct a portfolio of multiple assets that will maximize returns for a given level of risk.
Likewise, given a desired level of expected return, an investor can construct a portfolio with the lowest possible risk. Based on statistical measures such as variance and correlation, an individual investment's return is less important than how the investment behaves in the context of the entire portfolio.
Portfolio Risk and Expected Return MPT makes the assumption that investors are risk-averse, meaning they prefer a less risky portfolio to a riskier one for a given level of return. This implies than an investor will take on more risk only if he or she is expecting more reward.
The expected return of the portfolio is calculated as a weighted sum of the individual assets' returns. To calculate the risk of a four-asset portfolio, an investor needs each of the four assets' variances and six correlation values, since there are six possible two-asset combinations with four assets.
Because of the asset correlations, the total portfolio risk, or standard deviationis lower than what would be calculated by a weighted sum. Efficient Frontier Every possible combination of assets that exists can be plotted on a graph, with the portfolio's risk on the X-axis and the expected return on the Y-axis.
This plot reveals the most desirable portfolios. For example, assume Portfolio A has an expected return of 8. Portfolio A would be deemed more "efficient" because it has the same expected return but a lower risk.
It is possible to draw an upward sloping hyperbola to connect all of the most efficient portfolios, and this is known as the efficient frontier. Investing in any portfolio not on this curve is not desirable.View The Theory of Trade and Investment (2) from MBA at Vancouver Island University.
Extended division of labor in the production process to a division of labor and specialized product across. A second type of model commonly used is a gravity model, which assumes that larger economies have a greater pull on trade flows than smaller economies, and that proximity is an important factor affecting trade .
of international trade and economic theory, which is followed by a review and assessment of international trade theories, foreign direct investment (FDI) theories and international- trade, foreign direct investment and ﬁrm internationalization: a critique Management Decision 35/1  68–78 of economic growth is the balance of pay-.
Theories of International Trade and Investment 1. 1Theories of International Trade and Investment 2. Parental care.
Parental investment theory is a branch of life history attheheels.com earliest consideration of parental investment is given by Ronald Fisher in his book The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection, wherein Fisher argued that parental expenditure on both sexes of offspring should be equal.
Clutton-Brock expanded the concept of PI to include costs to any other component of. The Theory of Interstellar Trade Paul Krugman∗ June 20, Editor’s note: This article was written in July but has not been previ-ously published.